THE FACTOR THEORY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE VIEWS OF AL-FARSI (D. 377 AH) THE BOOK (OPTICS ALBASARIAAT) AS A MODEL
In terms of its idea، the research is based on highlighting the importance of the grammatical work، or the idea of the grammatical factor، and shows the extent to which factor theory is related to the reality of grammatical language; Because the grammatical work is the orbit on which the structure of the vocabulary is based and made into useful sentences in the Arabic language، the sentence is built on the basis of the connection of two things or more، namely the predicate and the predicate، and this is equally between the two types of the sentence، whether it is nominal or de facto، because this connection occurs because of the existence of work between them; Because the subject of the predicate is the subject، i.e. the syntactic effect - which is the action - is caused by the subject، as well as in the actual sentence; The affixer of the subject is the verb، and this connection in the action، in turn، extends to the meaning; From the point of view of the meaning، it is not correct to omit one of the parties to the action; There is no predicate without the subject، and there is no subject without the verb، and the opposite is also true. The research touched on many views through which it shows the importance of the factor theory، and how grammar، since its inception، was originally based on the idea of work. Like Dr. Fadel Al-Samarrai، may God protect him.The research came to put a position in opposition to the voices that called for the denial and abolition of the factor theory، which was in its first appearance at the hands of Ibn Mada (d. 592 AH)، and other modernists who believed that the renewal of grammar is by canceling the factor theory and eliminating the causes; Because it is one of the things that brought Arabic grammar into a stalemate phase. Our research takes a different view of denying the idea of work. Rather، it stresses the importance of its existence and the impossibility of dispensing with it in the grammar lesson; Simply because it is one of the pillars of Arabic grammar. As for the scientific material on which the research is based، it is the book (Al-Masas’ al-Osatiya) by Abu Ali al-Farsi (d. 377 AH); Because in this book there are many grammatical issues through which the Persian interest in the idea of the grammatical factor appears; Therefore، it is correct that these issues that Al-Farsi put in place are a clear model for the research vision.
Keywords: Persian, Optics İssues, Factor Theory, Arabic Grammar.